The BASF petrochemical plant in Port Arthur, Texas, was recently renovated so it could use shale gas to make plastic. (Photo by Reid R. Fraiser/The Allegheny Front) by Reid R. Frazier Allegheny Front PORT ARTHUR, Texas — Standing beneath a tangle of pipes, ductwork, and grated catwalks at BASF’s massive ethylene unit in this small refining city on the Gulf Coast, Andy Miller pointed to a large metal box a few feet above his head. Inside, a fire burning at 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit produced an industrial-scale whine. “If you look up into this little peephole, you’ll be able to see some of the firing,” Miller said. The orange glow is just one sign of an historic transformation occurring in the U.S. chemical industry and stretching from Western Pennsylvania to the Texas coast. The plant was recently modified to pipe ethane—a key component found in natural gas, especially in shale formations—through its furnaces. The plant can make more than two billion of pounds a year of ethylene, a key component of plastic that’s used in everything from diapers to antifreeze to plastic bags. This is where the building blocks for those products begin, said Miller, a manager for BASF. “It starts here.” Miller’s plant is one of several around the country that have expanded to take advantage of shale gas. In addition, six brand new “world-scale” crackers — where ethane is ‘cracked’ to separate out the ethylene — are slated for construction in Texas and Louisiana. Royal Dutch Shell has proposed building a cracker plant in Western Pennsylvania, in the heart of the ethane-rich Marcellus Shale. It would be the first ethane cracker of its size in the Appalachian region. The company has a land option for a property in Monaca, Pa., in Beaver County and has recently solicited bids for contracts from local ethane producers while it evaluates the site. The state has promised more than $1 billion in tax breaks over 25 years to the project, which Shell said could provide up to 10,000 jobs at the height of construction.
CAGED CHICKENS-The Humane Society conducted an undercover investigation in 2012 at Kreider Farms in Manheim, Pa. Kreider cages about seven million egg-laying hens at its four Pennsylvania facilities. (Photo by The Humane Society of the U.S.) by Natasha Khan, PublicSource Chickens crammed into wire cages next to the rotting carcasses of other chickens. The floor of a barn coated with flies. Hens with their heads jammed between cages and feeding machines.