1940—Black newspaper owner’s group—the NNPA (National Negro Publishers Association)—was founded when John H. Sengstacke of the Chicago Defender organized a meeting with other African-American publishers designed for “harmonizing our energies in a common purpose for the benefit of Negro journalism.” The group decided to form the National Negro Publishers Association. In 1956 the trade association was renamed the National Newspapers Publishers Association.
1940—Benjamin O. Davis Sr. becomes the first Black general in the U.S. Army.
1958—An estimated 10,000 students led by Jackie Robinson, Harry Belafonte, and labor leader A. Phillip Randolph, participate in a youth march for integrated schools in Washington, D.C.
1976—One-time racist Gov. George Wallace grants a full pardon to Clarence “Willie” Norris—the last known survivor of the nine “Scottsboro Boys.” The group had been framed in a 1931 conviction for allegedly raping two White women.
1994—Apparently believing it would be easy to frame a Black man for the crime, Susan Smith—a White woman from Union, S.C.- claims that a Black carjacker had driven off with her two sons. Her story became a national sensation, but it later fell apart. She eventually confessed to drowning the children and was convicted of murder.
1749—The British parliament legalizes slavery in the American colony, which would become known as Georgia.
1806—Benjamin Banneker dies at 74. He had become a recognized inventor and scientist. He also completed the design and layout of Washington, D.C., after L’Enfant returned to France.
1868—B.F. Randolph, a prominent Black politician in South Carolina after the Civil War, is assassinated. He was believed to have been killed by former Confederate soldiers seeking to re-establish White racist rule in the state via terrorist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan.
1872—Inventor T. Marshal patents the fire extinguisher.
1911—Famed gospel singer Mahalia Jackson is born in New Orleans, La. She is generally considered the greatest gospel singer that ever lived.